The review has the objective of providing information about the main roles and tasks that pasture users unions and associations generally perform in different countries, and why and how the experience of these associations can be fruitful in the development and growth of the “District Pasture Coordinating Council (DPCC)”, and the “Unions of Pasture Users (UPUs) established in the framework of the “JAILYM” Project, in the Enbekshi-Kazakh district of Almaty Region.

This paper presents Theories, Approaches, Relationships, Implementation of Local Economic Development and Circular Economy.

This paper is an extract with translation from the Chapter 2: Val d’Aosta Green of the 2030 strategy for the Valle d’Aosta Sustainable Regional Development, whithin the Regional Strategic Framework, edited by ILS LEDA.

According to the European Commission (EC White Paper 2009), strategy of tackling climate change ought to be developed in two different directions:

  • a reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions with the target of slowing down global warming in the long-run (mitigation actions);
  • an increase in the resilience of human activities and ecosystems to prevent or minimize the unavoidable impacts in the short-run (adaptation actions)

In this framework, through reviewing the international literature, in this paper seven case studies were analysed. 

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